Zogzas and others (1994) consider you to definitely noticeable thickness hinges on the volume shrinking coefficient and water stuff (Desk step three, Eq

Noticeable occurrence (?b) models

Based on Krokida and you will Philippopoulos (2005) , visible density try a purpose of wetness blogs, type of solid, and you will air volume proportion. The vast majority of habits to have predicting apparent occurrence utilized in brand new literary works is actually empirical; practical or theoretic designs just have come proposed by a small quantity of people ( Rahman while others 1996 ). New visible density activities had been devised centered on dampness blogs (X), as opposed to considering the aftereffects of drying temperature; few believe diminishing, though it is high regarding the almost all instances ( Moreira although some 2000 ; ).

18), where the volumetric shrinking coefficient (?) is a linear function of moisture content. Boukouvalas and others (2006) mention that the parameters ( , ?) included in Eq. 18 of Table 3 depend on the drying method and processing conditions; as such, they propose Eq. 19, which considers ? to be a function of , ?w, and X.

Moreira while others (2000) keep you to visible density is obtainable by using the apparent thickness of the solid ( ) and the mass out-of drinking water ( ) at the beginning of drying while the a research to possess initial volume (Eq. 20, Dining table step three).

In Eq. 18 and 19, X= 0 is taken as a reference; in Eq. 20, the reference is X0= moisture content at the onset of drying.

The most recent theoretical model (Eq. 21) was put forth by Khalloufi and others (2010) . They consider ?b to be a function of the initial porosity of the material (?), X, ?w, ?s, ?(X), and collapse [?(X)].

Since ?(X) and you may ?(X) are definitely the features off wetness content, they are influenced by handling conditions, the nature of the tool becoming dehydrated, the drying out method, in addition to drying phase ( Khalloufi while others 2010 ).

Brand new failure formula (Eq. 27) proposed by the Khalloufi while others (2009) pledges your collapse function usually initiate in one single and finishes inside no.

In the event that topic is in a rubbery state, diminishing compensates almost completely having dampness loss, plus the quantity of the materials reduces linearly which have water content ( ). But not, low-temperatures dehydration away from foodstuffs inhibits this voglio recensioni incontri uniforme new wetness blogs on the cardio of your own topic of ever being far higher than regarding the outside, reducing interior worry, and consequently, breaking ( Bai while some 2002 ).

An erroneous calculation out of ?(X) and you can ?(X) can give increase to help you a mistake throughout the formula out of apparent thickness. This happens quite frequently, as the majority of article writers assume that shrinking is linear ( Zogzas while others 1994 ; Moreira although some 2000 ; ), or they can fit it so you can a moment-education polynomial ( Khalloufi and others 2010 ).

Upcoming designs is try and portray the fresh behavior off obvious thickness that have higher precision, considering X and thermal history of the material becoming dried.


The tendencies of density with respect to moisture content and drying temperature have been discussed within the framework of currently available theories of second-order phase changes, structural changes, and changes in chemical composition occurring in the mass and heat transference processes. The majority of the empirical and theoretical equations representing true density do not fit the concave-down tendencies of certain materials. Equations for calculating apparent density based on shrinking and collapse are not reliable, as errors arise from failing to consider minimal variations in volume at the end of the drying process. It is recommended that variations in ?s and ?w as a function of the internal temperature of the material, according to the drying conditions (X, T), be included to yield a better fit to the tendencies of density with respect to X.